Introduction to the chemistry of haloalkanes (alkyl halides)

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Reactions on sp3-hybridized carbon atom: substitution and elimination reactions

Organic compounds with an electronegative substituent on one $sp3$-Carbon atoms can basically enter into two types of reactions: substitution reactions and elimination reactions. In substitution reactions, the electronegative substituent is replaced (substituted) by another atom or group. In elimination reactions, this substituent is removed (eliminated) from the starter compound together with a hydrogen atom of an adjacent carbon atom. In both cases the leaving particle (the substituent) is called the leaving group.

Typical representatives of this class of compounds are the haloalkanes (alkyl halides) with the halide ions (${\text{Cl}}^{-}$, ${\text{Br}}^{-}$ or${\text{I.}}^{-}$) as leaving groups (${\text{X}}^{-}$).${\text{F.}}^{-}$ practically never appears as a leaving group.

Substitution reactions are important types of reactions in organic chemistry because they make it possible to convert the haloalkanes, which are readily available synthetically, into a large number of other compounds.

Video: 2nd Year Ch 10 Lec 1. Alkyl Halides. Haloalkanes. Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides (July 2022).

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