Chemistry

Joseph Loschmidt

Joseph Loschmidt


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Biography

Born
March 15, 1821 in Putschirn
Died
July 08, 1895 in Vienna

The Austrian chemist Joseph Loschmidt was born on March 15, 1821 as the son of a farmer in Putschirn near Karlsbad. He initially studied philology and philosophy at the German University in Prague, but went to the University of Vienna in 1841 and studied natural sciences there. After a relatively unsuccessful activity in industry until 1856, he went to a Vienna secondary school as a teacher of chemistry, physics and mathematics. Loschmidt later made the acquaintance of the director of the Physics Institute at the University of Vienna, who enabled him to use the laboratory and library. In 1861 Loschmidt published his book "Constitutional formulas of organic chemistry in graphic representation", in which he represented double and triple bonds by means of corresponding connecting lines. In this context he also suggested that ozone consists of three oxygen atoms.

In 1865 Loschmidt gave a lecture on "The size of air molecules" at the Academy of Sciences in Vienna. Here, with the help of the kinetic gas theory, he calculated the diameter of molecules relatively precisely for the first time and from this he estimated the number of molecules per milliliter of a gas. The number of molecules has long been referred to as the Loschmidt number NL. Today it is called Avogadro's number NA, in honor of Avogadro's brilliant theory about the same number of particles in equal volumes of different gases and the diatomic nature of the smallest particles of elementary gases, although Avogadro of course does not - even approximately - give any information about the number of molecules in a gas volume could.

Loschmidt accepted a professorship for physical chemistry at the University of Vienna in 1868. He died on July 8th, 1895 in Vienna.


Loschmidt, Josef

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How to quote

Loschmidt, Johann Joseph, index entry: German biography, https://www.deutsche-biographie.de/pnd119550407.html [07/03/2021].

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Genealogy

Life

His book "Chemische Studien, I" (1861) and his studies of the size and behavior of gas molecules deserve special mention among L.'s achievements. In his book he was the first to use the symbolism for multiple bonds, which is still common today - a result of his occupation with graphic molecular models, which also led him to the exact ozone formula and the assumption of an ether bond in cane sugar. He also proposed a ring formula for benzene before Kekulé, but rejected the existence of double bonds. The finding, known today as the Erlenmeyer rule, that in polyhydric alcohols there can only be one OH group on a carbon atom if the connection is to be stable, goes back to L. He rightly suspected that certain atoms have different | Can have values ​​that he referred to as different "capacities". He gave the sulfur capacities 2, 4, 6, nitrogen 3 and 5, carbon 4, oxygen 2 and hydrogen 1 as - applicable - exceptions, he named the compounds NO, CO and NO 2. The scope of these statements was largely misunderstood by L.'s contemporaries.

Probably the most important result of L. s research is the constant named after him by L. Boltzmann. It resulted from an effort to calculate the size of gas molecules, whereby L. based the interaction between a thin molecular layer (not necessarily monomolecular) and a mass point moving within it. Taking into account the assumptions of Maxwell and Clausius, he calculated the mean free path of the mass point and, taking into account Avogadro's theorem and the gas condensation coefficient, came to the conclusion that a gas molecule has a diameter of about 10 -7 cm. Later, based on this and with the help of better approximations, a diameter about half as large was calculated. As a result, the mean distance between two molecules is set at 3 ∙ 10 -7 cm, and for the molar volume of a gas (i.e. 22.4 l) the Loschmidt number of 6.023 ∙ 10 23 molecules. Well-known researchers such as G. Jäger and L. Boltzmann emerged from L.'s school

Awards

Member d. Ak. d. Knowledge Vienna (1867)
Dr. H. c. (Vienna 1868).

Factories

Further W et al. Chem. Studies, I (constitutional formulas of organic chemistry in graphical representation), 1861, 1913 (Ostwalds Klassiker No. 190, edited by L. Anschütz)
To the Constitution d. Aether, 1862
To size d. Air molecules, in: SB d. Ak. d. Knowledge Vienna, math.-nat. Kl., 51, 2, 1865
To theory d. Gase, ibid. 54, 2, 1866. -
Brit. Mus. Gen. Cat. 144, 1962, p. 761 f. (W-catalog).

Literature

ADB 52
Sudetendt. Lb. I, 1926 (P)
J. Hann, in: Alm. D. Ak. d. Knowledge Wien 46, 1896, pp. 258-62 (W, P)
L. Boltzmann, in: Physikal. Zs. 1, 1900, p. 169 f.
ders., in: Popular Schrr. , 2 1919, pp. 228-52
R. Anschütz, About L. s graph. Formulas ..., in: Berr. d. Dt. Chem. Ges. 45, 1912, pp. 539 f.
R. Wegscheider, in: Chemiker- Ztg. 45, 1921, p. 321 f.
F. Exner, in: Naturwiss. 9, 1921, p. 177 f.
H. de Martin, J. J. L., Life, Achievement, Evaluation, Diss. Vienna 1949 (unedited)
A. Hermann, early business d. Quantum Theory ..., 1961
ders., Lex. d. Business d. Physics, 1972, p. 213 f.
Crosland, M. P., Hist. Studies in the Language of Chemistry, 1962, pp. 332 f.
NÖB III (P)
Pogg. III, IV, VII a Suppl.
Dict. of Scientific Biogr., VIII, pp. 507 f.
ÖBL.


Loschmidt

Loschmidt, Joseph, & # 246 Austrian physicist and chemist, * 15.3.1821 Putschirn (near Karlsbad), & # 82248.7.1895 Vienna from 1856 teacher at a secondary school, 1868-91 professor for physical chemistry in Vienna in addition to thermodynamic and electrodynamic work, research & # 252 determined the size of the air molecules in 1856 through kinetic gas theory, optics and crystal forms and calculated (1865) on the basis of gas kinetics for the first time the Loschmidt number named after him Systems and represented double and triple bonds graphically with corresponding connecting lines determined the composition of ozone.

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Prof. Dr. Andreas Müller, Trier [AM2] (A) (33)
Prof. Dr. Karl Otto Münnich, Heidelberg (A) (Essay Environmental Physics)
Dr. Nikolaus Nestle, Leipzig [NN] (A, B) (05, 20)
Dr. Thomas Otto, Geneva [TO] (A) (06)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Ulrich Parlitz, Göttingen [UP1] (A) (11)
Christof Pflumm, Karlsruhe [CP] (A) (06, 08)
Dr. Oliver Probst, Monterrey, Mexico [OP] (A) (30)
Dr. Roland Andreas Puntigam, Munich [RAP] (A) (14)
Dr. Gunnar Radons, Mannheim [GR1] (A) (01, 02, 32)
Dr. Max Rauner, Weinheim [MR3] (A) (15)
Robert Raussendorf, Munich [RR1] (A) (19)
Ingrid Reiser, Manhattan, USA [IR] (A) (16)
Dr. Uwe Renner, Leipzig [UR] (A) (10)
Dr. Ursula Resch-Esser, Berlin [URE] (A) (21)
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Hans-Jörg Rutsch, Walldorf [HJR] (A) (29)
Rolf Sauermost, Waldkirch [RS1] (A) (02)
Matthias Schemmel, Berlin [MS4] (A) (02)
Prof. Dr. Erhard Scholz, Wuppertal [ES] (A) (02)
Dr. Martin Schön, Konstanz [MS] (A) (14 essay Special Theory of Relativity)
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Jörg Schuler, Taunusstein [JS1] (A) (06, 08)
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Dr. Siegmund Stintzing, Munich [SS1] (A) (22)
Dr. Berthold Suchan, Giessen [BS] (A) (Essay Philosophy of Science)
Cornelius Suchy, Brussels [CS2] (A) (20)
Dr. Volker Theileis, Munich [VT] (A) (20)
Prof. Dr. Stefan Theisen, Munich (A) (essay string theory)
Dr. Annette Vogt, Berlin [AV] (A) (02)
Dr. Thomas Volkmann, Cologne [TV] (A) (20)
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Articles on the topic

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We're going into round 2 of our world-famous cross-faculty tournament on May 6th, 2017! Unfortunately, other faculties were very divided in terms of time, so this time it's the four of us again: Astronomy, chemistry, meteorology and physics. We have chosen for Dodgeball decided, because the skills should be distributed fairly evenly - at least we assume that hardly any student even plays semi-professional dodgeball) In addition, it will not be just one, not two, but the same four price categories give!

The tournament will take place on a Saturday afternoon in the sports halls on the Schmelz, after which there will be one Aftershow party with Ben Stiller, Vince Vaughn and Christine Taylor on Physics!

Registrations to play along (Individuals or teams!) By email to us!

In addition, no sporting event is complete, if not also Viewers cheer from the stands :)

Lecture series on the current university situation

Together with the Red Vector Physics, we took a closer look at the current idea of ​​financing university places and considered alternatives to access restrictions. You can find a more detailed text here.

You also want to say something about it? Then come by for part 2 of our joint series of lectures:

Study place financing, April 27, 2017, 6:30 p.m. in the Joseph-Loschmidt lecture hall (Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna)

You can find a corresponding event on Facebook here!

PS: In part 1, on April 26th, 2017, 6:30 p.m. in the Ludwig-Boltzmann lecture hall (Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna) it's about them Uni, the ÖH and the choice!

Addendum from May 5th, 2017: The recordings of both lectures can be found here!


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He did research in the fields of thermodynamics, electrodynamics and optics and on crystal forms. In 1861 he made proposals for the constitution of benzene as a ring-shaped structure for the first time.

In 1865 he determined the size of air molecules for the first time - on the basis of gas kinetics. & # 912 & # 93 At the same time, he was able to use the one later named after him for the first time Loschmidt's constant to be calculated, which can be converted to the Avogadro constant used today.

He also determined the composition of ozone. Loschmidt also suspected for the first time that there were ring-shaped arrangements in carbon compounds and developed the representation of double and triple bonds by means of corresponding connecting lines.

Because of his achievements, he was awarded membership of the Vienna Academy of Sciences.

In 1995 the Austrian postal administration issued a special postage stamp with a face value of ATS 20 on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Josef Loschmidt's death.


History and designation of the constant

The Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro postulated in 1811 that equal volumes of different ideal gases contain the same number of molecules (Avogadro's law).

The Austrian physicist and chemist Josef Loschmidt (then as Joseph Loschmidt known) to determine the order of magnitude of this number of molecules (see below). Loschmidt's pupil and later friend Ludwig Boltzmann named the number of molecules (particle number) of an ideal gas at normal pressure and temperature per volume derived from Loschmidt's results as (the physical quantity of) Loschmidt-constant $ <>_ $. The Loschmidt constant multiplied by the CGS unit cubiccentimeter (cm 3) is called Loschmidt's number (in the Gaussian CGS system) $ <> _ < left _ mathrm > $ denotes:

In 1909 (after both Loschmidt and Avogadro had died), the French chemist Jean-Baptiste Perrin suggested that size should not be given as the number of particles per unit volume, but as the number of particles per mole under the name Avogadro number before. the Avogadro number (in the SI system) $ <> _ < left _ mathrm> $ indicates how many particles a substance of 1 & # 160mol consists of. In German-speaking countries, however, the name Loschmidt's number or Loschmidt number continued to be used. But now with a different meaning, namely as a synonym for Avogadro number.

the Avogadro number in the SI system $ <> _ < left _ mathrm> $ multiplied by the SI unit mol −1 is the (physical quantity of) Avogadro's constant $ <>_ $ :

Avogadro's constant (not Loschmidt's constant) is used to convert molecular to molar sizes. The Loschmidt constant has been included in the CODATA recommendations for physical constants since the CODATA 1986 publication.


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He did research in the fields of thermodynamics, electrodynamics and optics and on crystal forms. In 1861 he made proposals for the constitution of benzene as a ring-shaped structure for the first time.

In 1865 he determined the size of air molecules for the first time - on the basis of gas kinetics. With that he was also able for the first time to use the one later named after him Loschmidt's constant to be calculated, which can be converted to the Avogadro constant used today.

In his work “Chemical Studies. Constitutional formulas of organic chemistry in graphical representation ”(published 1861), Loschmidt described 368 (of which 121 aromatic) molecules with the help of his“ constitutional formulas ”, these are still very easy to understand for chemists and show the spatial orientation of the atoms. His formulas show double and triple bonds with the corresponding number of bars, as is still common today. Also included are formulas for ozone and cyclopropane, which was only officially discovered by August Freund 21 years later. Loschmidt wrote that phenyl rings presumably have similar constitutions as cyclopropane, so he probably knew about the ring-shaped appearance of benzene. August Kekulé knew Loschmidt's “constitutional formulas” before he published his version of the structure of the benzene ring, so some historians believe that Kekulé at least got his inspiration for the structure of benzene from Loschmidt's work.

Scheme of “benzoyl hydrogen” (benzaldehyde) from Loschmidts Chemical studies (1861)


ADB: Loschmidt, Johann Joseph

Article "Loschmidt, Josef" by Robert Knott in: General German biography, published by the Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Volume 52 (1906), pp. 82–84, digital full-text edition in Wikisource, URL: https://de.wikisource.org/w/index.php? title = ADB: Loschmidt, _Johann_Joseph & ampoldid = - (Version from July 2, 2021, 10:18 p.m. UTC)

Loschmidt: Joseph L., born on March 15, 1821 in Puschirn near Karlsbad in Bohemia as the son of a smallholder. With the small yield of the small clod of land that belonged to him, his father had to work with his family on daily wages in order to earn a living for his family. Josef L., the eldest of four siblings, showed little employment in the field work, so one tried to give him a higher education. At the age of twelve he came to Schlackenwerth to first attend the grammatical classes, after which he went to Prague in 1837, where he completed the humanity classes of the grammar school and the two years of philosophical studies. The then professor of philosophy at Prague University, F. Exner, recognized Loschmidt’s talent, supported the utterly destitute in every way and determined him to study mathematics and natural sciences [83] to dedicate. It is also due to Exner’s influence that L. in Prague spent some time applying mathematics to the solution and Treatment of philosophical, but especially psychological problems in the sense of the Herbartian philosophy prevailing at the time. In 1841 L. came to Vienna and studied chemistry with Meißner, physics with Ettingshausen [WS 1] and political science with Giskra. He had to earn his living by taking private lessons. In 1843 he passed the first strict examination to obtain the doctorate. He then tried to get a teaching position at a college and therefore underwent two concur exams. Since his wish was not fulfilled, he decided to devote himself to a practical career. He therefore (1845) heard again chemistry from Professor Schrötter, who had meanwhile moved to Vienna, and worked in his laboratory until the end of 1846. During this time, in association with his friend and colleague B. Margulies, he invented a process, chilli nitrate (sodium nitrate) in the for the potash nitrate used in gunpowder production. Up until that time, saltpeter could only be represented in saltpeter plantations. L. and Margulies found that if certain temperature and concentration ratios are maintained, potash and chilli nitrate solutions react and simply deliver completely pure potassium nitrate. In order to exploit their process, they set up a saltpeter factory in Atzgersdorf near Vienna in 1847 and produced such an excellent product that as early as 1848 the Aerar transferred the entire delivery of saltpetre to them. In spite of the fact that this industry has developed into one of the most important ones today, the discoverers have had no material advantage from it Support from the Aerars, cease operations as early as 1850. L. now took over the management of a chemical factory in Peggau in Styria, but left his position after the death of the owner, worked in various establishments and finally set up a large chemical product factory for a consortium in Neuhaus in Bohemia in 1853 In the meantime, the latter was able to begin its activity, when the political entanglements of 1854 arose. The company was badly damaged by the money and credit crises of this time and came into Concurs.

Sick and depressed by the failures, L. turned away from industry. He applied for a teaching position several times again, but for a long time to no avail. Finally in 1856 he was given a teaching position at the elementary and lower secondary school in Leopoldstadt. In addition to his teaching activities, he worked scientifically. The publication of some very outstanding works prompted his appointment as a corresponding member of the Imperial Academy (1867). From now on, Loschmidt’s further life paved. In 1868 he was awarded an honorary doctorate and was appointed associate professor at the University of Vienna. In 1870 he became a full member of the academy and in 1872 a full professor. L. was active in this position until October 1891, when he had to resign from the teaching post according to the legal provisions. On this occasion he received the Order of the Iron Crown from the government as a token of recognition of his services. In the last few years he was very suffering on July 8th, 1895 he died in Vienna.

[84] Of his works, the most important are those on the theory of gases. Following the kinetic theory of gases, L. first calculated the size of the molecules and found the diameter to be 1 millionth of a millimeter. - The titles of his publications can be found among others. in Poggendorff’s biographical-literary concise dictionary.


History and designation of the constant

The Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro postulated in 1811 that equal volumes of different ideal gases contain the same number of molecules (Avogadro's law).

The Austrian physicist and chemist Josef Loschmidt succeeded for the first time in 1865 (after Avogadro's death) in determining this number of molecules by order of magnitude (see “The size of air molecules”). Loschmidt's pupil and later friend Ludwig Boltzmann named the particle number of the molecules of an ideal gas, derived from Loschmidt's results, per volume at normal pressure and normal temperature as Loschmidt-constant $ n_0 $. The Loschmidt constant multiplied by the CGS unit cubiccentimeter (cm 3) is called Loschmidt's number (in the Gaussian CGS system) $ left _ mathrm $ denotes:

Avogadro's constant (not Loschmidt's constant) is used to convert molecular to molar sizes. The Loschmidt constant has been included in the CODATA recommendations for physical constants since the CODATA 1986 publication.


Services [edit | Edit source]

He did research in the fields of thermodynamics, electrodynamics and optics and on crystal forms. In 1861 he made proposals for the constitution of benzene as a ring-shaped structure for the first time.

In 1865 he determined the size of air molecules for the first time - on the basis of gas kinetics. & # 912 & # 93 At the same time, he was able to use the one later named after him for the first time Loschmidt's constant to be calculated, which can be converted to the Avogadro constant used today.

In his work “Chemical Studies. Constitutional formulas of organic chemistry in graphical representation ”(published 1861), Loschmidt described 368 (of which 121 aromatic) molecules with the help of his“ constitutional formulas ”, these are still very easy to understand for chemists and show the spatial orientation of the atoms. His formulas show double and triple bonds with the corresponding number of bars, as is still common today. Also included are formulas for ozone and cyclopropane, which was only officially discovered by August Freund 21 years later. Loschmidt wrote that phenyl rings presumably have similar constitutions as cyclopropane, so he probably knew about the ring-shaped appearance of benzene. August Kekulé knew Loschmidt's “constitutional formulas” before he published his version of the structure of the benzene ring, so some historians believe that Kekulé at least got his inspiration for the structure of benzene from Loschmidt's work.



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