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Linus Carl Pauling, born February 28, 1901 in Portland, USA was one of the most important chemists and received two Nobel Prizes.
He was the son of Hermann Heinrich Wilhelm Pauling, of German descent, and of Lucy Isabelle Darling. Your father was a pharmacist. He had two sisters: Pauline and Frances Lucille. Due to difficulties in his father's work as a child at age 5, his family moved to Condon, Oregon.
His father recognized that Pauling was very intelligent from an early age. He died when Linus was 9 years old. As a child, I was very fond of reading and experimenting in a friend's lab.
He did not get a high school diploma early because he did not score well in US history. Later, 45 years later the school gave Pauling this diploma after receiving two Nobel Prizes. Studied in Washington and graduated in Chemistry from Oregon State University.
He worked as a dairyman, film projectionist and worked in a shipyard. He spent most of his academic life at the California Institute of Technology, Cal Tech. He finished his doctorate at this institution and later went to Europe for a year to study quantum mechanics with Niels Bohr, Sommerfeld and Shorodinger. He studied quantum chemistry and hydrogen atom molecules.
In 1923, he married Ava Helen Miller. He was Ava's teacher. They had three sons and one daughter. He returned to the United States in 1927 where he worked as an assistant professor of theoretical chemistry at Cal Tech.
In California, he studied quantum chemistry and crystals more thoroughly. Published around 50 articles. Created at five Pauling Rules. In 1929, he was appointed Associate Professor and a year later Professor.
In 1930 returns to Europe, studies the electrons and builds together with a student an electron diffraction apparatus to study the structure of molecules. He received the Langmuir Prize in 1931 for doing the most significant scientific work done by a scientist under 30 years old.
In 1932, he showed the idea of electronegativity and the Pauling Range. One of his most important works is on hybridization and carbon tetravalence. In the 1950s, he began to study a new model for the atomic nucleus. He also began to investigate biological molecules.
He studied vitamin C and its role in curing cancer, a disease he had. There was a lot of controversy. The treatment was based on the intake of high doses of vitamins and minerals. Then, you increased your intake of vitamin C.
In 1973, he founded the Institute of Orthomolecular Medicine in Menlo Park. Then his name became the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962.
He died in Big Sur on August 19, 1994.